Social Sciences Civics CBSE Class 10 Federalism SAQ
Q.1. “Belgium shifted from a unitary to a federal form of government”. What key changes were brought in the political system under the above mentioned shift ?
Ans. (i) Many powers of the central government were given to state governments of the two regions of the country.
(ii) The regional governments were given constitutional powers that were no longer dependent on the central government.
(iii) Apart from the central government and the state government there is a third kind of government known as community government. This government has the power regarding cultural, educational and language related issues.
Q.2. “Federations are contrasted with unitary governments”. Explain by giving examples from Sri Lanka and Belgium.
Ans. Under the unitary system, either there is only one level of government or the sub-units are subordinate to the Central government. The Central government can pass on orders to the provincial or the Local government. For example in Sri Lanka is a unitary country and the Union government passed a new law stipulating that the state shall protect and foster Buddhism. Whereas under federal system, the Central government cannot order the State government to do something. State government has powers of its own for which ‘ it i’s not answerable to the Central government. Both these governments are separately answerable to the people.
Q.3. Mention any three features of an ideal federal system.
Ans. (i) The federal system which safeguards and promotes unity of the country, while at the same time accommodates regional diversity.
(ii) Governments at different levels should agree to some rules of power-sharing. They should also trust that each would abide by its part of the agreement.
(iii) An ideal federal system has both aspects : mutual trust and agreement to live together.
Q.4. Mention any two subjects which are r included in the union list. Explain by giving reasons why these are included in the union list.
Ans. Defence and foreign affairs.
(i) These are subjects of national importance.
(ii) We need a uniform policy on these matters throughout the country.
Q.5. ‘All states in the Indian Union do not have identical powers. Justify. –
Ans. (i) Some states like Jammu and Kashmir has its own Constitution.
(ii) Many provisions of the Indian Constitution are not applicable to this State without the approval of the State Assembly.
(iii) Indians who are not permanent residents of this State cannot buy land or house here. Similar special provisions exist for some other States of India as well.
Q.6. “Federal power sharing is more effective today than it was in the early years after the Constitution came into force”. Explain.
How is federal power sharing more effective today than in the early years ? Explain.
Ans. (i) Centre-State relations: As and when the ruling party at the State level was different, the parties that ruled at the Centre tried to undermine the power of the states. The Central Government has been misusing the Constitution to dismiss the State governments that were controlled by rival parties. This undermined the spirit of federalism. All this changed significantly after 1990. This period saw the rise of regional political parties in many states of the country.
(ii) Coalition Governments and autonomy of states: The era of coalition has changed the relationship between the centre and state governments since no single party got a clear majority in the LokSabha, the major national parties had to enter into an alliance with many parties including several regional parties to form a government at the Centre. This led to a new culture of power sharing and respect for the autonomy of State Governments.
(iii) Judgement of the Supreme Court: The
Supreme Court of India has established strict guidelines for imposing President’s rule. With new guidelines it is very difficult for the Central Government to dismiss state governments in an arbitrary manner. Thus, federal power sharing is more effective today than it was in the early years after the Constitution came into force.
Q.7. ‘The sharing of power between the Union government and the state governments is basic to the structure of the Indian Constitution’. Explain.
Ans. (i) Under a federal government, the fundamental provisions cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of the government and the same is true for India,
(ii) The Parliament cannot on its own change the fundamental structure of the Constitution. Any change in it has to be first passed by both the Houses of the Parliament with at least two-third majority. Then it has to be ratified by the legislatures of at least half of the total states.
Q.8. Mention any four features of federalism. [CBSE 2008, 2009 (O), Sept. 2010, 2011, 2012]
Explain four features of the federal form of government. [CBSE 2008 Comp. (O) (D)]
Ans. (i) The power is divided between a central authority and its various constituent units.
(ii) Different tiers of the government govern the same citizens.
(iii) The fundamental provisions of the government cannot be unilaterally changed by one level of government.
(iv) It has a dual objective, i.e., to safeguard and promote the unity of the country, and also to accommodate the regional diversity.
Q.9. “There is a need for power sharing within the states”. Explain.
Ans. (i) A vast country like India cannot be run only through these two-tiers. States in India are as large as independent countries of Europe. In terms of population, Uttar Pradesh is bigger than Russia, Maharashtra is about as big as Germany.
(ii) Many of Indian states are internally very diverse. There is thus a need for power sharing within these states.
(iii) The third tier is also required to principle of decentralisation of power.
Q.10. Mention any four difficulties of the local government in India. [CBSE Comp. (O) 2008, Sept. 2010, 14]
Ans. (i) Most states have not transferred significant powers to the local governments.
(ii) There is a shortage of resources.
(iii) Elections are not held regularly.
(iv) The GramSabhas are not held regularly.
Q.11. What are the advantages of local governments ? [CBSE Sept. 2010]
Ans. (i) Constitutional status for local government has helped to deepen democracy in our country.
(ii) It has also increased women’s representation and voice in our democracy.
(iii) This allows people to directly participate in decision making.
(iv) Local people have better ideas and knowledge about the local problems.
Q.12. Explain two achievements and two difficulties of the Icoal self-governments in India. [CBSE Comp. (O) 2008, Sept. 2011, 14]
Ans. Achievements :
(i) It has made the country more united and stronger.
(ii) It has also made the administration easier.
(i) There is a shortage of resources.
(ii) Elections are not held regularly.
Q.13. What is Gram Sabha ? Mention its functions.
Ans. Every adult of the village who is 18 years of age constitute the Gram Sabha.
(i) It is the decision-making body of the entire village.
(ii) The village Panchayat works under the supervision of the Gram Sabha.
(iii) It approves the annual budget of the Gram Panchayat.
Q.14. What is a Panchayati Raj ? What is its importance ? [CBSE 2008 (F)]
Ans. The rural local government is known as the Panchayati Raj.
(i) It helps the people to directly participate in decision-making.
(ii) It helps in the decentralisation of power.
(iii) It reduces the burden of the central government.
Q.15. Which is the highest tier of the Panchayati Raj ? Explain its composition.
Ans. The highest institution of the Panchayati Raj in rural areas is the Zila Parishad. The Zila Parishad coordinates the activities of all the Block Samitis in the whole district. Most members of the Zila Parishad are elected. Members of the Lok Sabha and the MLAs of that district along with some other officials of other district level bodies are also its members. The Zila Parishad’s Chairperson is the political head of the Zila Parishad.
Q.16. Define :
(a) Gram Panchayat
(b) Panchayat Samiti
(c) Zila Parishad
Ans. (a) It is a council consisting of several ward members, often called the Panch and a president or a Sarpanch.
(b) A few Gram Panchayats are grouped together to form a Panchayat Samiti or Block or a Mandal.
(c) All the Panchayat Samitis or Mandals in a district together constitute the Zila Parishad.
(d) A Mayor is an elected Chairperson of the Municipal Corporation.